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Organic Chemistry

Program: 
Chemistry
ECTS: 
11
Lecturer: 
Prof. dr hab. Lechosław Latos-Grażyński (lechoslaw.latos-grazynski@chem.uni.wroc.pl) Dr Miłosz Pawlicki (milosz.pawlicki@chem.uni.wroc.pl)
Type: 
Compulsory
Lecture
Number of hours: 
3h X 15 weeks = 45 hours (1 semester)
Laboratory
Number of hours: 
4h X 15 weeks = 60 hours (1 semester)
Seminar
Number of hours: 
2h X 15 weeks = 30 hours (1 semester)
Objective: 

To present and properly describe fundamental aspects of organic chemistry theoretically (lecture and seminar) and practically (laboratory). In addition the teaching labs focus on bringing a practical knowledge of basic organic reactions leading to formation of target molecules on a way of traditional synthetic approach, and show a correlation between theoretical predictions and a real product. The quality/purity of the obtained compounds verified with spectroscopic methodology.

Assessment: 

lecture: A writing exam at the end of the second semester (spring) summarizing the presented aspects of organic chemistry.
laboratory: Several tests checking the competition of the student for safe work in the lab are planned during the semester. In addition the day-by-day assessment will be conducted by the instructor during the laboratory work.
seminar: A day-by-day evaluation of the progress will be conducted by an instructor during seminars. In addition several writing tests will be conducted at the end of each section of material (i.e. hydrocarbons, alcohols etc.)

Prerequisites: 

Fully validated Fundamental Chemistry

Contents: 

Lecture (both semesters autumn and spring, 75h in total):

IUPAC system of the organic compounds naming; structure and properties (chemical and physicochemical) of the organic compounds; synthetic methodology; appearance in Nature; applications in medicine, laboratory and industry.

The structure of organic molecules. Chemical bonds in organic compounds - a dissociation energy. Structure and reactivity. Acids and bases in organic chemistry. Polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Alkanes - construction and reactivity. Free radical halogenations. Cycloalkanes. Stereoisomerism. Properties and reactivity of alkane halogens. Nucleophilic substitution - SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Elimination reactions. Alcohols - properties and synthetic strategies. Ethers, crown ethers, epoxides and sulphoxides. The nuclear magnetic resonance as a tool for determining organic molecules structure. Alkenes. The oscillation spectroscopy in organic chemistry. Alkynes. Coupled dienes - systems with a delocalized  bonds. The electron spectroscopy In the UV-Vis for organic compounds. Benzen and aromaticity - electrophilic substitution (substituents influence on regioselectivity). Carbonyl group - aldehydes and ketones. Enols - reactivity of an enolate ion. Aldol condensation (a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones). Carboxylic acids. Mass spectrometry In organic chemistry. Amines and their derivatives. Benzene derivatives (aromatic amines, phenoles , alkilbenzenes etc.) and their reactivity. Claisen condensation - the synthesis of b-dicarbonyl compounds. Heterocyclic compounds - furan, thiophene, pyrrole, pyridine, porphyrin). Strategy in organic synthesis - basic principles. Aminoacids, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids (biopolymers). Organometallic compounds - synthesis, structure, properties and applications. Polymers - synthetic methodology, structure, properties and applications. Resins - phenol, epoxide and polyester. Biodegradable polymers. Basic aspects of supramolecular chemistry.

Laboratory I (Autumn Semester, 90h, 6h per week) focuses on a traditional qualitative analysis of organic compounds. At the beginning of the semester every student will get a theoretical knowledge and practical skills preparing him/her to independent analysis of unknown organic molecule. A classical classification that introduces : hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated), alcohols, carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids (and derivatives), amines - where a single functional group is present will be established. The examples of organic molecules with two or more functional groups will be discussed and tested (aminoacids, sugars). The characteristic reactions for every functional group will be discussed and performed by every student himself. It allows to get a knowledge necessary for an analysis of unknown molecule that is compulsory for passing the course. The classical analysis is supported by modern, spectroscopic (NMR, IR, Mass, UV-Vis) approach in establishing structures of unknown organic molecules.

Laboratory II (70h; 10 weeks of a spring semester) brings synthetic aspects of organic laboratory work. It starts with a purification of organic compounds (crystallization of a carboxylic acid and a separation of two component mixture). Both experiments introduce fundamental laboratory techniques (recrystallization and steam distillation) that complete the spectrum of available purification techniques introduced within previous courses (simple and fractional distillation, extraction etc.). The main part of the course is focused on the organic synthesis with application of typical reactivity of organic molecules - electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution, aldol like condensations and rearrangements finished with reduction/oxidation processes in organic chemistry. Each student is obligated to synthesize 4-5 compounds where each of them focuses on different type of reactivity. The laboratory creates a perspective necessary to take a part in an allied subject from the offer available during the study (i.e. Elements of Natural Products Chemistry or Elements of Organic Synthesis).

Knowledge:

  • Has a fundamental knowledge about organic molecules

  • Knows and understands a terminology and nomenclature of organic compounds.

  • Is familiar with fundamentals of the analysis of organic compounds.

  • Characterizes basic types of organic reactions and understands their mechanisms.

  • Determines basic properties and reactivity of organic compounds.

  • Knows and understands the safety procedures necessary in the lab work and applies disposal rules.

Skills:

  • is able to analyse basic synthetic approaches

  • is able to perform a qualitative analysis of organic molecules based on the spectroscopic methodology.

  • projects a typical chemical experiment according to the good laboratory practice (GLP)

  • synthesises chemical compounds with a usage of proper glassware.

  • writes reports from a research and adopts correct tools to do so.

  • describes and discuss chemical problems with a vocabulary characteristic for a scientific approach.

  • assesses results of an experiment and verifies them with a literature data.

Personal and Social Competence

  • a self-reliant in extending the chemical knowledge

  • a responsibility for the work that has been done especially for an interpretation of results with an extra accent at the scientific reliability.

  • a responsibility for a safety in lab-work.